Preview

Научно-практическая ревматология

Расширенный поиск

Общие принципы лечения скелетно-мышечной боли: междисциплинарный консенсус

https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2016-247-265

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Основное проявление заболеваний суставов и позвоночника, таких как остеоартроз, неспецифическая боль в спине, ревматологическая патология околосуставных мягких тканей, – скелетно-мышечная боль (СМБ). Она приводит к значительным страданиям, временной и стойкой потере трудоспособности миллионов жителей нашей страны. Эти люди нуждаются в адекватной медицинской помощи, и прежде всего – в быстром и максимально полном обезболивании. К сожалению, в этой области медицины приходится видеть серьезные проблемы. Отсутствие единого подхода и преемственности в лечебном процессе, недостаточные знания о современной концепции патогенеза СМБ и возможностях ее терапии могут существенно затруднять работу практикующих врачей.

20 июня 2015 г. в Москве состоялось совещание российских экспертов, представляющих различные медицинские специальности и обсудивших вопросы оптимизации тактики лечения СМБ. По итогам совещания были выделены основные положения, касающиеся теоретических и практических аспектов СМБ, а также предложен алгоритм лечения этой патологии. Представляется, что использование этого алгоритма позволит облегчить работу практикующих врачей, повысить эффективность и безопасность анальгетической терапии.

Об авторах

Е. Л. Насонов
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой; ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

директор, президент Общероссийской общественной организации «Ассоциация ревматологов России», 115522 Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34А;

зав. кафедрой ревматологии Института профессионального образования, 119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2

главный внештатный специалист-ревматолог Минздрава России, докт. мед. наук, профессор

 

 



Н. Н. Яхно
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

заведующий научно-исследовательским отделом неврологии научно-исследовательского центра, профессор кафедры нервных болезней лечебного факультета, директор научно-образовательного клинического центра неврологии, президент Российского общества по изучению боли, докт. мед. наук, профессор,

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



А. Е. Каратеев
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой
Россия

заведующий лабораторией гастро- энтерологических проблем при ревматических заболеваниях, докт. мед. наук,

115522 Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34А



Л. И. Алексеева
ФГБНУ Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой
Россия

заведующая лабораторией остеоартроза, докт. мед. наук, профессор;

115522 Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34А



А. Н. Баринов
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

старший научный сотрудник клиники нервных болезней ГБОУ ВПО «Первый МГМУ им. И.М. Сеченова», канд. мед. наук, доцент

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



А. Е. Барулин
ГБОУ ВПО «Волгоградский государственный медицинский университет» Минздрава России
Россия

заведующий курсом неврологии, мануальной терапии, рефлекотерапии, докт. мед. наук, профессор

400131 Волгоград, площадь Павших борцов, 1



О. С. Давыдов
ГБУЗ г. Москвы «Научно-практический психоневрологический центр им. З.П. Соловьева Департамента здравоохранения г. Москвы»
Россия

ведущий научный сотрудник, канд. мед. наук

115419 Москва, ул. Донская, 43



А. Б. Данилов
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

профессор кафедры нервных болезней ИПО, докт. мед. наук, профессор

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



М. В. Журавлева
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

главный клинический фармаколог Департамента здравоохранения г. Москвы, профессор кафедры клинической фармакологии и пропедевтики внутренних болезней, докт. мед. наук, профессор;

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



Б. В. Заводовский
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт клинической и экспериментальной ревматологии» ФАНО России
Россия

заведующий лабораторией методов лечения и профилактики заболеваний суставов, докт. мед. наук, профессор

400138 Волгоград, ул. им. Землячки, 76



С. С. Копенкин
ГБОУ ВПО «Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России
Россия

доцент кафедры травматологии, ортопедии и военно-полевой хирургии, канд. мед. наук

117997 Москва, ул. Островитянова, 1



М. Л. Кукушкин
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт общей патологии и патофизиологии» РАН
Россия

руководитель лаборатории фундаментальных и прикладных проблем боли НИИ общей патологии и патофизиологии РАН, ответственный секретарь Российского общества по изучению боли, докт. мед. наук, профессор

125315 Москва, ул. Балтийская, 8



В. А. Парфенов
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

заведующий кафедрой нервных болезней и нейрохирургии лечебного факультета, директор клиники нервных болезней, докт. мед. наук, профессор

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



М. А. Страхов
ГБОУ ВПО «Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России
Россия

доцент кафедры травматологии, ортопедии и военно-полевой хирургии, канд. мед. наук,

117997 Москва, ул. Островитянова, 1



В. П. Тюрин
ФГБУ «Национальный медико-хирургический центр им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России
Россия

главный терапевт, заместитель заведующего кафедрой внутренних болезней ИУВ, заслуженный врач РФ, докт. мед. наук, профессор

105203 Москва, ул. Нижняя Первомайская, 70



Н. В. Чичасова
ГБОУ ВПО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России
Россия

профессор кафедры ревматологии ИПО, докт. мед. наук, профессор

119991 Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



С. А. Чорбинская
ФГБУ «Учебно-научный медицинский центр» Управления делами Президента Российской Федерации
Россия

заведующая кафедрой семейной медицины и заместитель директора по учебной работе, докт. мед. наук, профессор;

121359 Москва, улица Маршала Тимошенко, 21



Список литературы

1. Яхно НН, Кукушкин МЛ, редакторы. Боль (практическое руководство для врачей). Москва: Издательство РАМН; 2012. 512 c. [Yakhno NN, Kukushkin ML, editors. Bol’ (prakticheskoe rukovodstvo dlya vrachei) [Pain (a practical guide for doctors)]. Moscow: Publishing of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences; 2012. 512 p.].

2. Яхно НН, Кукушкин МЛ. Хроническая боль: медико-биологические и социально-экономические аспекты. Вестник РАМН. 2012;(9):54-8 [Yakhno NN, Kukushkin ML. Chronic pain: medical-biological and socio-economic aspects. Vestnik RAMN. 2012;(9):54-8 (In Russ.)].

3. Яхно НН, Баринов АН, Подчуфарова ЕВ. Невропатическая и скелетно-мышечная боль. Современные подходы к диагностике и лечению. Клиническая медицина. 2008;(11):9-15 [Yakhno NN, Barinov AN, Podchufarova EV. Neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Klinicheskaya Meditsina. 2008;(11):9-15 (In Russ.)].

4. Насонов ЕЛ, Насонова ВА. Фармакотерапия боли: взгляд ревматолога. Consilium medicum. 2000;2(12):7-14 [Nasonov EL, Nasonova VA. Pharmacotherapy of pain: a view of the rheumatologist. Consilium medicum. 2000; 2 (12): 7-14 (In Russ.)].

5. Кукушкин МЛ, Хитров НК. Общая патология боли. Москва: Медицина; 2004. 144 с. [Kukushkin ML, Khitrov NK. Obshchaya patologiya boli [General pathology of pain]. Moscow: Medicine; 2004. 144 p.].

6. Голубев ВЛ. Боль – междисциплинарная проблема. Русский медицинский журнал. 2008;16 (Спец. выпуск):3-7 [Golubev VL. The pain – an interdisciplinary problem. Russkii Meditsinskii Zhurnal. 2008;16 (Special Issue):3-7 (In Russ.)].

7. Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2163-96. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2

8. Harker J, Reid K, Bekkering G, et al. Epidemiology of chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:371248. doi: 10.1155/2012/371248

9. Woolf A, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull WHO. 2003;81:646-56.

10. Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, et al. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(4):287-333. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.06.009

11. Эрдес ШФ, Дубинина ТВ, Галушко ЕА. Боли в нижней части спины в общеклинической практике. Терапевтический архив. 2008;80(5):59-61 [Erdes ShF, Dubinina TV, Galushko EA. Pain in the lower back in the general clinical practice. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv. 2008;80(5):59-61 (In Russ.)].

12. Friedly J, Standaert C, Chan L. Epidemiology of spine care: the back pain dilemma. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2010;21(4):659-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2010.08.002

13. Juniper M, Le T, Mladsi D. The epidemiology, economic burden, and pharmacological treatment of chronic low back pain in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK: a literature-based review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(16):2581-92. doi: 10.1517/14656560903304063

14. Litwic A, Edwards M, Dennison E, Cooper C. Epidemiology and burden of osteoarthritis. Br Med Bull. 2013;105:185-99. doi: 10.1093/bmb/lds038

15. Zhang Y, Jordan J. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clin Geriatr Med. 2010;26(3):355-69. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2010.03.001

16. Murphy L, Helmick C. The impact of osteoarthritis in the United States: a population-health perspective. Am J Nurs. 2012;112(3 Suppl 1):13-9. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000412646.80054.21

17. Millar NL, Murrell GA, McInnes IB. Alarmins in tendinopathy: unravelling new mechanisms in a common disease. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):769-79. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes409. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

18. Scott A, Ashe MC. Common tendinopathies in the upper and lower extremities. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2006 Sep;5(5):233-41. doi: 10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306421.85919.9c

19. Van Tulder M, Malmivaara A, Koes B. Repetitive strain injury. Lancet. 2007;369(9575):1815-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60820-4

20. Кукушкин МЛ, Табеева ГР, Подчуфарова ЕВ. Болевой синдром: патофизиология, клиника, лечение. Москва: ИМА-ПРЕСС; 2011. 72 с. [Kukushkin ML, Tabeeva GR, Podchufarova EV. Bolevoi sindrom: patofiziologiya, klinika, lechenie [Pain syndrome: pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment]. Moscow: IMA-PRESS; 2011. 72 p.].

21. Staud R. Evidence for shared pain mechanisms in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011 Dec;13(6):513-20. doi: 10.1007/s11926-011-0206-6

22. Edmonds S. Therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis. Maturitas. 2009 Jul 20;63(3):191-4. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.03.015. Epub 2009 May 6.

23. Felson DT. The sources of pain in knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005 Sep;17(5):624-8. doi: 10.1097/01.bor.0000172800.49120.97

24. Blondell RD, Azadfard M, Wisniewski AM. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pain. Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jun 1;87(11):766-72.

25. Kroenke K, Krebs EE, Bair MJ. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009 May-Jun;31(3):206-19. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych. 2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

26. Насонова ВА, Фоломеева ОМ, Эрдес ШФ. Ревматические заболевания в Российской Федерации в начале XXI века глазами статистики. Терапевтический архив. 2009;(6):5-10 [Nasonova VA, Folomeeva OM, Erdes ShF. Rheumatic diseases in the Russian Federation at the beginning of the XXI century through the eyes of statistics. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv. 2009;(6):5-10 (In Russ.)].

27. Балабанова РМ, Эрдес ШФ. Распространенность ревматических заболеваний в России в 2012-2013 гг. Научно-практическая ревматология. 2015;52(2):120-4 [Balabanova RM, Erdes ShF. The incidence and prevalence of rheumatic diseases in Russia in 2012–2013. Nauchno-Prakticheskaya Revmatologiya = Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2015;53(2):120-4 (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/1995-4484-2015-120-124

28. Каратеев АЕ. Болезни костно-мышечной системы в практике 2102 врачей разных специальностей: структура патологии и мнение специалистов об эффективности НПВП (предварительные данные эпидемиологического исследования КОРОНА-2). Consilium medicum, 2013;15(9):95-100 [Karateev AE. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system in practice in 2102 doctors of different specialties: pathology structure and experts' opinion on the effectiveness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (preliminary data of CROWN-2 epidemiological studies). Consilium medicum. 2013;15(9):95-100. (In Russ.)].

29. McAlindon TE, Bannuru RR, Sullivan MC, et al. OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Mar;22(3):363-88. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

30. Bruyere O, Cooper C, Pelletier J-P, et al. An algorithm recommendation for the management of knee Osteoarthritis in Europe and internationally: A report from a task force of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014;44:253-63. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.05.014

31. Koes BW, van Tulder M, Lin CW, et al. An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J. 2010 Dec;19(12):2075-94. doi: 10.1007/s00586-010-1502-y

32. Van Hecke O, Torrance N, Smith B. Chronic pain epidemiology and its clinical relevance. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111(1):13-8. doi: 10.1093/bja/aet123

33. Smith B, Elliott A, Hannaford P, Chambers W. Factors related to the onset and persistence of chronic back pain in the community: results from a general population follow-up study. Spine. 2004;29(9):1032-40. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200405010-00016

34. Bergman S, Herrstrom P, Jacobsson L, Petersson I. Chronic widespread pain: a three year follow-up of pain distribution and risk factors. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:818-25.

35. Andersen JC. Is immediate imaging important in managing low back pain? J Athl Train. 2011 Jan-Feb;46(1):99-102. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-46.1.99

36. Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for lowback pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009 Feb 7;373(9662):463-72. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60172-0

37. Jarvik J, Gold L, Comstock B, et al. Association of early imaging for back pain with clinical outcomes in older adults. JAMA. 2015;313(11):1143-53. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.1871

38. Igarashi A, Kikuchi S, Konno S, Olmarker K. Inflammatory cytokines released from the facet joint tissue in degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Oct 1;29(19):2091-5. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000141265.55411.30

39. Genevay S, Finckh A, Payer M, et al. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in periradicular fat tissue in patients with radiculopathy from herniated disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Sep 1;33(19):2041-6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e318183bb86

40. Cuellar JM, Golish SR, Reuter MW, et al. Cytokine evaluation in individuals with low back pain using discographic lavage. Spine J. 2010 Mar;10(3):212-8. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2009.12.007

41. Schaible H. Mechanisms of chronic pain in osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012;14(6):549-56. doi: 10.1007/s11926-012-0279-x

42. Walsh D, Bonnet C, Turner E, et al. Angiogenesis in the synovium and at the osteochondral junction in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Jul;15(7):743-51. Epub 2007 Mar 21. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2007.01.020

43. Pelletier JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Abramson SB. Osteoarthritis, an inflammatory disease: potential implication for the selection of new therapeutic targets. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Jun;44(6):1237-47. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200106)44:6<1237::AID-ART214>3.0.CO;2-F

44. Alvarez-Soria MA, Largo R, Santillana J, et al. Long term NSAID treatment inhibits COX-2 synthesis in the knee synovial membrane of patients with osteoarthritis: differential proinflammatory cytokine profile between celecoxib and aceclofenac. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Aug;65(8):998-1005. Epub 2006 Feb 13. doi: 10.1136/ard.2005.046920

45. McCarberg BH, Ruoff GE, Tenzer-Iglesias P, Weil AJ. Diagnosis and treatment of low-back pain because of paraspinous muscle spasm: a physician roundtable. Pain Med. 2011 Nov;12 Suppl 4:S119-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01253.x

46. Lund JP, Donga R, Widmer CG, Stohler CS. The pain-adaptation model: a discussion of the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and motor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1991;69:683-94. doi: 10.1139/y91-102

47. Roland M. A critical review of the evidence for pain-spasm-pain cycle in spinal disorders. Clin Biomech. 1986;1:102-9. doi: 10.1016/0268-0033(86)90085-9

48. Iglesias-Gonzalez JJ, Munoz-Garcia MT, Rodrigues-de-Souza DP, et al. Myofascial trigger points, pain, disability, and sleep quality in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Pain Med. 2013 Dec;14(12):1964-70. doi: 10.1111/pme.12224. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

49. Ramsook RR, Malanga GA. Myofascial low back pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2012 Oct;16(5):423-32. doi: 10.1007/s11916-012-0290-y

50. Fisher NM, Pendergast DR. Reduced muscle function in patients with osteoarthritis. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1997 Dec;29(4):213-21.

51. Arokoski MH, Arokoski JP, Haara M, et al. Hip muscle strength and muscle cross sectional area in men with and without hip osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002 Oct;29(10):2185-95.

52. Blume C, Wang SS. Comparison of changes in supraspinatus muscle thickness in persons with subacromial impingement syndrome and asymptomatic adults. Physiother Theory Pract. 2014 Nov;30(8):544-51. doi: 10.3109/09593985.2014.902522. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

53. Silldorff MD, Choo AD, Choi AJ, et al. Effect of supraspinatus tendon injury on supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle passive tension and associated biochemistry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Oct 15;96(20):e175. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.M.01315

54. Thomopoulos S, Parks WC, Rifkin DB, Derwin KA. Mechanisms of tendon injury and repair. J Orthop Res. 2015 Jan 29. doi: 10.1002/jor.22806 [Epub ahead of print].

55. Millar NL, Hueber AJ, Reilly JH, et al. Inflammation is present in early human tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(10):2085-91. doi: 10.1177/0363546510372613. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

56. McGonagle D, Benjamin M. Entheses, entehesitis and enthesopathy. Report of rheumatic diseases, series 6, autumn 2009, №4. Available from: www.arc.org.uk/arthinfo/rdr.asp

57. Gotoh M, Hamada K, Yamakawa H, et al. Interleukin-1-induced glenohumeral synovitis and shoulder pain in rotator cuff diseases. J Orthop Res. 2002 Nov;20(6):1365-71. doi: 10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00063-3

58. Voloshin I, Gelinas J, Maloney MD, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines and metalloproteases are expressed in the subacromial bursa in patients with rotator cuff disease. Arthroscopy. 2005 Sep;21(9):1076.e1-1076.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2005.05.017

59. Benjamin M, McGonagle D. Histopathologic changes at «synovio-entheseal complexes» suggesting a novel mechanism for synovitis in osteoarthritis and spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56 (11):3601-9. doi: 10.1002/art.23078

60. Haviv B, Bronak S, Thein R. The complexity of pain around the knee in patients with osteoarthritis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2013 Apr;15(4):178-81.

61. Felson DT. Osteoarthritis as a disease of mechanics. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Jan;21(1):10-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.09.012. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

62. Tsao H, Tucker KJ, Coppieters MW, Hodges PW. Experimentally induced low back pain from hypertonic saline injections into lumbar interspinous ligament and erector spinae muscle. Pain. 2010 Jul;150(1):167-72. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.023. Epub 2010 May 26.

63. Panjabi MM. A hypothesis of chronic back pain: ligament subfailure injuries lead to muscle control dysfunction. Eur Spine J. 2006 May;15(5):668-76. doi: 10.1007/s00586-005-0925-3. Epub 2005 Jul 27.

64. Longo UG, Berton A, Khan WS, et al. Histopathology of rotator cuff tears. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011 Sep;19(3):227-36. doi: 10.1097/JSA.0b013e318213bccb

65. Ko JY, Wang FS. Rotator cuff lesions with shoulder stiffness: updated pathomechanisms and management. Chang Gung Med J. 2011 Jul-Aug;34(4):331-40.

66. Raastad J, Reiman M, Coeytaux R, et al. The association between lumbar spine radiographic features and low back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015 Apr;44(5):571-85. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.10.006. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

67. De Schepper EI, Damen J, van Meurs JB, et al. The association between lumbar disc degeneration and low back pain: the influence of age, gender, and individual radiographic features. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Mar 1;35(5):531-6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181aa5b33

68. Scheele J, de Schepper EI, van Meurs JB, et al. Association between spinal morning stiffness and lumbar disc degeneration: the Rotterdam Study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Sep;20(9):982-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.05.011. Epub 2012 Jun 12.

69. Beresford ZM, Kendall RW, Willick SE. Lumbar facet syndromes. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2010 Jan-Feb;9(1):50-6. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181caba05

70. Cohen SP, Raja SN. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain. Anesthesiology. 2007 Mar;106(3):591-614. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200703000-00024

71. Туровская ЕФ, Алексеева ЛИ, Филатова ЕГ. Современные представления о патогенетических механизмах боли при остеоартрозе. Научно-практическая ревматология. 2014;52(4):438-44 [Turovskaya EF, Alekseeva LI, Filatova EG. Current ideas about the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in osteoarthrosis. Nauchno-Prakticheskaya Revmatologiya = Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2014;52(4):438-44 (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/1995-4484-2014-438-444

72. Mease P, Hanna S, Frakes E, Altman R. Pain mechanisms in osteoarthritis: understanding the role of central pain and current approaches to its treatment. J Rheumatol. 2011;38(8):1546-51. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.100759

73. Hochman J, French M, Bermingham S, Hawker G. The nerve of osteoarthritis pain. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62(7):1019-23. doi: 10.1002/acr.20142

74. Fishbain DA, Cole B, Lewis JE, Gao J. What is the evidence that neuropathic pain is present in chronic low back pain and soft tissue syndromes? An evidence-based structured review. Pain Med. 2014 Jan;15(1):4-15. doi: 10.1111/pme.12229. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

75. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Vicenzino B. Thermal hyperalgesia distinguishes those with severe pain and disability in unilateral lateral epicondylalgia. Clin J Pain. 2012;28:595-601. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31823dd333

76. Данилов АБ, Давыдов ОС. Нейропатическая боль. Москва: Боргес; 2007. С. 11, 37-45 [Danilov AB, Davydov OS. Neiropaticheskaya bol’ [Neuropathic pain]. Moscow: Borges; 2007. P. 11, 37-45].

77. Englbrecht M, Tarner I, van der Heijde D, et al. Measuring pain and efficacy of pain treatment in inflammatory arthritis: A systematic literature review. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2012;90:3-10. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.120335

78. Whittle S, Colebatch A, Buchbinder R, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: Integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e Initiative. Rheumatology. 2012;51(8):1416-25. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes032

79. Ostelo R, de Vet H. Clinically important outcomes in low back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005;19(4):593-607. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2005.03.003

80. Stauffer M, Taylor S, Watson D, et al. Definition of nonresponse to analgesic treatment of arthritic pain: An analytical literature review of the smallest detectable difference, the minimal detectable change, and the minimal clinically important difference on the pain visual analog scale. Int J Inflam. 2011;2011:231926. doi: 10.4061/2011/231926

81. Angst F, Aeschlimann A, Stucki G. Smallest detectable and minimal clinically important differences of rehabilitation intervention with their implications for required sample sizes using WOMAC and SF-36 quality of life measurement instruments in patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremities. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;45(4):384-91. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(200108)45:4<384::AID-ART352>3.0.CO;2-0

82. Cepeda M, Africano J, Polo R, et al. What decline in pain intensity is meaningful to patients with acute pain? Pain. 2003;105(1-2):151-7. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00176-3

83. Каратеев АЕ. Факторы, влияющие на эффективность обезболивающей терапии. Эффективная фармакотерапия. Неврология и Психиатрия. 2013;47(5):46-53 [Karateev AE. Factors affecting the effectiveness of pain therapy. Effektivnaya farmakoterapiya. Nevrologiya i Psikhiatriya. 2013;47(5):46-53 (In Russ.)].

84. Farrar J, Young J, La Moreaux L, et al. Clinical importance of changes in chronic pain intensity measured on an 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Pain. 2001;94(2):149-58. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00349-9

85. Salaffi F, Stancati A, Silvestri C, et al. Minimal clinically important changes in chronic musculoskeletal pain intensity measured on a numerical rating scale. Eur J Pain. 2004;8(4):283-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2003.09.004

86. Kovacs F, Abraira V, Royuela A, et al. Minimum detectable and minimal clinically important changes for pain in patients with nonspecific neck pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:43. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-43

87. Каратеев АЕ, Насонов ЕЛ, Яхно НН и др. Клинические рекомендации «Рациональное применение нестероидных противовоспалительных препаратов (НПВП) в клинической практике». Современная ревматология. 2015;9(1):4-24 [Karateev AE, Nasonov EL, Yakhno NN, et al. Clinical guidelines «Rational use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in clinical practice». Sovremennaya Revmatologiya = Modern Rheumatology Journal. 2015;9(1):4-23. (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/1996-7012-2015-1-4-23

88. Brune K, Patrignani P. New insights into the use of currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Pain Res. 2015 Feb 20;8:105-18. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S75160. eCollection 2015.

89. Daniels S, Bandy D, Christensen S, et al. Evaluation of the dose range of etoricoxib in an acute pain setting using the postoperative dental pain model. Clin J Pain. 2011;27(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181ed0639

90. Brattwall M, Turan I, Jakobsson J. Pain management after elective hallux valgus surgery: a prospective randomized double-blind study comparing etoricoxib and tramadol. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(2):544-9. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e3d87c

91. O'Donnell J, Ekman E, Spalding W, et al. The effectiveness of a weak opioid medication versus a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in treating flareup of chronic low-back pain: results from two randomized, double-blind, 6-week studies. J Int Med Res. 2009;37(6):1789-802. doi: 10.1177/147323000903700615

92. DeLemos B, Xiang J, Benson C, et al. Tramadol hydrochloride extended-release once-daily in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip: a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging trial. Am J Ther. 2011;18(3):216-26. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181cec307

93. Innes G, Croskerry P, Worthington J, et al. Ketorolac versus acetaminophen-codeine in the emergency department treatment of acute low back pain. J Emerg Med. 1998 Jul-A Aug;16(4):549-56. doi: 10.1016/S0736-4679(98)00044-4

94. Beaulieu A, Peloso P, Haraoui B, et al. Once-daily, controlledrelease tramadol and sustained-release diclofenac relieve chronic pain due to osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Pain Res Manag. 2008;13(2):103-10. doi: 10.1155/2008/903784

95. Bjordal J, Klovning A, Ljunggren A, Slordal L. Short-term efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain: A meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. Eur J Pain. 2007 Feb;11(2):125-38. Epub 2006 May 8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2006.02.013

96. Roelofs PD, Deyo RA, Koes BW, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD000396. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000396.pub3

97. Boudreault J, Desmeules F, Roy J, et al. The efficacy of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2014 Apr;46(4):294-306. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1800

98. Moore R, Derry S, McQuay H. Discontinuation rates in clinical trials in musculoskeletal pain: meta-analysis from etoricoxib clinical trial reports. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10(3):R53. doi: 10.1186/ar2422

99. Furst D, Kolba K, Fleischmann R, et al. Dose response and safety study of meloxicam up to 22.5 mg daily in rheumatoid arthritis: a 12 week multicenter, double blind, dose response study versus placebo and diclofenac. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(3):436-46.

100. Derry S, Moore RA. Single dose oral celecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 22;10:CD004233. doi: 10.1002/14651858. CD004233.pub4.

101. Yakhno N, Guekht A, Skoromets A, et al. Analgesic efficacy and safety of lornoxicam quick-release formulation compared with diclofenac potassium. Clin Drug Invest. 2006;26(5):267-77. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200626050-00004

102. Dougados M, Le Henanff A, Logeart I, Ravaud P. Short-term efficacy of rofecoxib and diclofenac in acute shoulder pain: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. PLoS Clin Trials. 2007 Mar 9;2(3):e9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pctr.0020009

103. Chandanwale AS, Sundar S, Latchoumibady K, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of combination of tramadol-diclofenac versus tramadol-paracetamol in patients with acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain, and acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase III, 5-day open-label study. J Pain Res. 2014 Aug 12;7:455-63. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S67817. eCollection 2014.

104. Tramer MR, Williams JE, Carroll D, et al. Comparing analgesic efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs given by different routes in acute and chronic pain: a qualitative systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1998 Jan;42(1):71-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.1998.tb05083.x

105. Altman R, Barthel H. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis. Drugs. 2011;71(10):1259-79. doi: 10.2165/11592550-000000000-00000

106. Derry S, Moore R, Rabbie R. Topical NSAIDs for chronic muscoloskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD 007400.

107. Baraf H, Gloth F, Barthel H, et al. Safety and efficacy of topical diclofenac sodium gel for knee osteoarthritis in elderly and younger patients: pooled data from three randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. Drugs Aging. 2011;28(1):27-40. doi: 10.2165/11584880-000000000-00000

108. Goldstein JL, Cryer B. Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2015 Jan 22;7:31-41. doi: 10.2147/DHPS.S71976. eCollection 2015.

109. Harirforoosh S, Asghar W, Jamali F. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: an update of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and renal complications. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(5):821-47. doi: 10.18433/J3VW2F

110. Moore A, Makinson G, Li C. Patient-level pooled analysis of adjudicated gastrointestinal outcomes in celecoxib clinical trials: meta-analysis of 51,000 patients enrolled in 52 randomized trials. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013 Jan 8;15(1):R6. doi: 10.1186/ar4134

111. Day R, Graham G, Whelton A. The position of paracetamol in the world of analgesics. Am J Therap. 2000;7:51-5. doi: 10.1097/00045391-200007020-00002

112. Prescott L. Paracetamol: past, present and future. Am J Ther. 2000;7:135-43. doi: 10.1097/00045391-200007020-00011 113. Towheed T, Maxwell L, Judd M, et al. Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;25(1):CD004257. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd004257.pub2

113. Machado G, Maher C, Ferreira P, et al. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials. Brit Med J. 2015 Mar 31;350:h1225. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h1225

114. Garcia Rodriguez L, Hernandez-Diaz S. Relative risk of upper gastrointestinal complications among users of acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Epidemiology. 2001;12(5):570-6. doi: 10.1097/00001648-200109000-00018

115. Chan A, Manson J, Albert C, et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation. 2006;113(12):1578-87. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.595793

116. Dedier J, Stampfer M, Hankinson S, et al. Nonnarcotic analgesic use and the risk of hypertension in US women. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):604-8. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000035856.77718.DA

117. Forman J, Rimm E, Curhan G. Frequency of analgesic use and risk of hypertension among men. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(4):394-9. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.4.394

118. Ong C, Seymour R, Lirk P, Merry A. Combining paracetamol (acetaminophen) with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: a qualitative systematic review of analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain. Anesth Analg. 2010,110(4):1170-9. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181cf9281

119. McQuay H, Edwards J. Meta-analysis of single dose oral tramadol plus acetaminophen in acute postoperative pain. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl. 2003;28:19-22.

120. Bronstein A, Spyker D, Cantilena L, et al. 2006 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System (NPDS). Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007;45:815-917. doi: 10.1080/15563650701754763

121. Chaparro LE, Furlan AD, Deshpande A, et al. Opioids compared with placebo or other treatments for chronic low back pain: an update of the Cochrane Review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 1;39(7):556-63. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000249

122. Cepeda M, Camargo F, Zea C, Valencia L. Tramadol for osteoarthritis: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Rheumatol. 2007,34(3):543-55.

123. Da Costa BR, Nü esch E, Kasteler R, et al. Oral or transdermal opioids for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 17;9:CD003115. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd003115.pub4

124. Metscher B, Kü bler U, Jahnel-Kracht H. Dexketoprofentrometamol and tramadol in acute lumbago. Fortschr Med Orig. 2001;118(4):147-51.

125. Pavelka K, Peliskova Z, Stehlikova H, et al. Intraindividual differences in pain relief and functional improvement in osteoarthritis with diclofenac or tramadol. Clin Drug Investig. 1998;16(6):421-9. doi: 10.2165/00044011-199816060-00002

126. Adams E, Breiner S, Cicero T, et al. A comparison of the abuse liability of tramadol, NSAIDs, and hydrocodone in patients with chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(5):465-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.10.006

127. Ritvo J, Koonce R, Thurstone C, Causey HL 3rd. Tramadol dependence: treatment with buprenor-phine/naloxone. Am J Addict. 2007;16(1):67-8. doi: 10.1080/10550490601080118

128. Trescot A, Helm S, Hansen H, et al. Opioids in the management of chronic non-cancer pain: An update of American Society of the Interventional Pain Physicians' (ASIPP) Guidelines. Pain Physician. 2008;Opioids Special Issue 11:5-62.

129. Van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, et al. Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD004252. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd004252

130. Гурак СВ, Парфенов ВА, Борисов КН. Мидокалм в комплексной терапии острой поясничной боли. Боль. 2006;(3):27-30 [Gurak SV, Parfenov VA, Borisov KN. Mydocalm in the treatment of acute low back pain. Bol’. 2006;(3):27-30 (In Russ.)].

131. Ходинка Л, Меилингер М, Сабо Ж, Залавари И. Лечение острой поясничной боли Мидокалмом. Результаты международного мультицентрового рандомизированного двойного-слепого плацебо-контролируемого клинического исследования. Русский медицинский журнал. 2003;(5):246-9 [Khodinka L, Meilinger M, Sabo Zh, Zalavari I. Treatment of acute low back pain Mydocalm. The results of an international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Russkii Meditsinskii Zhurnal. 2003;(5):246-9 (In Russ.)].

132. Pratzel HG, Alken RG, Ramm S. Efficacy and tolerance of repeated doses of tolperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm: results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Pain. 1996 Oct;67(2-3):417-25. doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(96)03187-9

133. Кукушкин МЛ. Современный взгляд на механизм действия Мидокалма. Consilium medicum. 2013;15(2):89-94 [Kukushkin ML. Modern view of the mechanism of action Mydocalm. Consilium medicum. 2013;15(2):89-94. (In Russ.)].

134. Шарапова ЕП, Алексеева ЛИ, Зайцева ЕМ и др. Применение миорелаксантов в комплексной терапии остеоартроза. Consilium medicum. 2008;(2):30-2 [Sharapova EP, Alekseeva LI, Zaitseva EM, et al. The use of muscle relaxants in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Consilium Medicum. 2008;(2):30-2 (In Russ.)].

135. Berry H, Hutchinson D. A multicentre placebo-controlled study in general practice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tizanidine in acute low-back pain. J Int Med Res. 1988;16(2):75-82.

136. Berry H, Hutchinson D. Tizanidine and ibuprofen in acute lowback pain: results of a double-blind multicentre study in general practice. J Int Med Res. 1988;16(2):83-91.

137. Sirdalud Ternilin Asia-Pacific Study group. Efficacy and gastroprotective effects of tizanidine plus diclofenac versus placebo plus diclofenac in patients with painful muscle spasm. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:13-22. doi: 10.1016/S0011-393X(98)85019-4

138. Pareek A, Chandurkar N, Chandanwale A, et al. Aceclofenactizanidine in the treatment of acute low back pain: a doubleblind, double-dummy, randomized, multicentric, comparative study against aceclofenac alone. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(12):1836-42. doi: 10.1007/s00586-009-1019-4

139. Karol D, Muzyk A, Preud'homme X. A case of delirium, motor disturbances, and autonomic dysfunction due to baclofen and tizanidine withdrawal: a review of the literature. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;33(1):84.

140. Del Rosario M, Weachter R, Flaker G. Drug-induced QT prolongation and sudden death. Mol Med. 2010;107(1):53-8.

141. Kaddar N, Vigneault P, Pilote S, et al. Tizanidine (Zanaflex): A muscle relaxant that may prolong the QT interval by blocking IKr. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Mar;17(1):102-9. doi: 10.1177/1074248410395020. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

142. Publow S, Branam D. Hypotension and bradycardia associated with concomitant tizanidine and lisinopril therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67(19):1606-10. doi: 10.2146/ajhp090657

143. Devulder J. Flupirtine in pain management: pharmacological properties and clinical use. CNS Drugs. 2010;24(10):867-81. doi: 10.2165/11536230-000000000-00000

144. Klawe C, Maschke M. Flupirtine: pharmacology and clinical applications of a nonopioid analgesic and potentially neuroprotective compound. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(9):1495-500. doi: 10.1517/14656560902988528

145. Harish S, Bhuvana K, Bengalorkar GM, Kumar TN. Flupirtine: Clinical pharmacology. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2012;28:172-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.94833

146. Ueberall M, Mueller-Schwefe G, Terhaag B. Efficacy and tolerability of flupirtine in subacute/chronic musculoskeletal pain – results of a patient level, pooled re-analysis of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;49(11):637-47. doi: 10.5414/CP210000

147. Uberall MA, Mueller-Schwefe GH, Terhaag B. Efficacy and safety of flupirtine modified release for the management of moderate to severe chronic low back pain: results of SUPREME, a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled parallel-group phase IV study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Oct;28(10):1617-34. doi: 10.1185/03007995.2012.726216

148. Данилов АБ, Николаева НС. Эффективность новой формы флупиртина® (Катадолона форте) в лечении острой боли в спине. Manage pain. 2013;(1):44-8 [Danilov AB, Nikolaeva NS. The effectiveness of a new form of flupirtina® (Katadolona fort) in the treatment of acute pain in the back. Manage Pain. 2013;(1):44-8 (In Russ.)].

149. Richards B, Whittle S, van der Heijde D, Buchbinder R. Efficacy and safety of neuromodulators in inflammatory arthritis: A Cochrane Systematic Review. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2012;90:28-33. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.120339

150. Chappell A, Ossanna M, Liu-Seifert H, et al. Duloxetine, a centrally acting analgesic, in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis knee pain: A 13-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2009;146(3):253-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.06.024

151. Williamson O, Schroer M, Ruff D, et al. Onset of response with duloxetine treatment in patients with osteoarthritis knee pain and chronic low back pain: a post hoc analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2014 Apr 1;36(4):544-51. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.02.009. Epub 2014 Mar 17.

152. Pergolizzi JV Jr, Raffa RB, Taylor R Jr, et al. A review of duloxetine 60 mg once-daily dosing for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic musculoskeletal pain due to chronic osteoarthritis pain and low back pain. Pain Pract. 2013 Mar;13(3):239-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00578.x. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

153. Giladi H, Choiniere M, Fitzcharles MA, et al. Pregabalin for chronic pain: does one medication fit all? Curr Med Res Opin. 2015 Jul;31(7):1403-11. doi: 10.1185/03007995.2015.1040750. Epub 2015 May 11.

154. Sakai Y, Ito K, Hida T, et al. Pharmacological management of chronic low back pain in older patients: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of pregabalin and opioid administration. Eur Spine J. 2015 Jun;24(6):1309-17. doi: 10.1007/s00586-015-3812-6. Epub 2015 Feb 15.

155. Romano CL, Romano D, Lacerenza M. Antineuropathic and antinociceptive drugs combination in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Pain Res Treat. 2012;2012:154781. doi: 10.1155/2012/154781. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

156. Ohtori S, Inoue G, Orita S, et al. Efficacy of combination of meloxicam and pregabalin for pain in knee osteoarthritis. Yonsei Med J. 2013 Sep;54(5):1253-8. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1253

157. Carmichael N, Katz J, Clarke H, et al. An intensive perioperative regimen of pregabalin and celecoxib reduces pain and improves physical function scores six weeks after total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-Jun;18(3):127-32. doi: 10.1155/2013/258714

158. Hameed F, Ihm J. Injectable medications for osteoarthritis. PM&R. 2012;4(5 Suppl):75-81. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.02.010

159. Habib G, Saliba W, Nashashibi M. Local effects of intra-articular corticosteroids. Clin Rheumatol. 2010;29(4):347-56. doi: 10.1007/s10067-009-1357-y

160. Dean BJF, Lostis E, Oakley T, et al. Risks and benefits of glucocorticoid treatment for tendinopathy: A systematic review of the effects of local glucocorticoid on tendon. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014;43(4):570-6. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2013.08.006

161. Tallia A, Cardone D. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the shoulder region. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(6):1271-8.

162. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Vicenzino B. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections and other injections for management of tendinopathy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2010 Nov 20;376(9754):1751-67. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61160-9. Epub 2010 Oct 21.

163. Bellamy N, Campbell J, Robinson V, et al. Intraarticular corticosteroid for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005328. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005328.pub2

164. Насонов ЕЛ, редактор. Ревматология. Клинические рекомендации. Москва: ГЭОТАР-Медиа; 2010. 752 с. [Nasonov EL, editor. Revmatologiya. Klinicheskie rekomendatsii [Rheumatology. Clinical recommendations]. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media; 2010. 752 p.].

165. Peloso P, Gross A, Haines T, et al. Medicinal and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD000319. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd000319.pub4

166. Staal JB, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, et al. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jan 1;34(1):49-59. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181909558

167. Chou R, Hashimoto R, Friedly J, et al. Pain Management Injection Therapies for Low Back Pain [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2015 Mar. AHRQ Technology Assessments.

168. Farooq M, Devitt A. Perceived efficacy and risks of infection following intra-articular injections: a survey of orthopaedic surgeons. Ir J Med Sci. 2005;174(1):26-32. doi: 10.1007/BF03168515

169. Charalambous C, Tryfonidis M, Sadiq S, et al. Septic arthritis following intraarticular glucocorticoid injection of the knee – a survey of current practice regarding antiseptic technique used during intra-articular glucocorticoid injection of the knee. Clin Rheumatol. 2003;22:386-90. doi: 10.1007/s10067-003-0757-7

170. Younes M, Neffati F, Touzi M, et al. Systemic effects of epidural and intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Joint Bone Spine. 2007 Oct;74(5):472-6. Epub 2007 Jul 6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2006.10.009

171. Moon HJ, Choi KH, Lee SI, et al. Changes in blood glucose and cortisol levels after epidural or shoulder intraarticular glucocorticoid injections in diabetic or nondiabetic patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;93(5):372-8. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000001

172. Strand V, McIntyre LF, Beach WR, et al. Safety and efficacy of US-approved viscosupplements for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, saline-controlled trials. J Pain Res. 2015 May 7;8:217-28. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S83076. eCollection 2015.

173. Campbell KA, Erickson BJ, Saltzman BM, et al. Is local viscosupplementation injection clinically superior to other therapies in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses. Arthroscopy. 2015 May 18. pii: S0749-8063(15)00257-1. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.030 [Epub ahead of print].

174. Bannuru RR, Vaysbrot EE, Sullivan MC, McAlindon TE. Relative efficacy of hyaluronic acid in comparison with NSAIDs for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014 Apr;43(5):593-9. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2013.10.002. Epub 2013 Oct 14.

175. Colen S, Haverkamp D, Mulier M, van den Bekerom MP. Hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis in all joints except the knee: what is the current evidence? BioDrugs. 2012 Apr 1;26(2):101-12. doi: 10.2165/11630830-000000000-00000

176. Lieberman JR, Engstrom SM, Solovyova O, et al. Is intra-articular hyaluronic acid effective in treating osteoarthritis of the hip joint? J Arthroplasty. 2015 Mar;30(3):507-11. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2013.10.019. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

177. Van den Bekerom MP, Lamme B, Sermon A, Mulier M. What is the evidence for viscosupplementation in the treatment of patients with hip osteoarthritis? Systematic review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008 Aug;128(8):815-23. Epub 2007 Sep 15. doi: 10.1007/s00402-007-0447-z

178. Blaine T, Moskowitz R, Udell J, et al. Treatment of persistent shoulder pain with sodium hyaluronate: a randomized, controlled trial. A multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(5):970-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.01116

179. Chang KV, Hsiao MY, Chen WS, et al. Effectiveness of intra-articular hyaluronic acid for ankle osteoarthritis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 May;94(5):951-60. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.10.030. Epub 2012 Nov 10.

180. Баринов АН, Пархоменко ЕВ, Махинов КА. Причины отрицательных исходов лечения боли в спине и способы их преодоления. Эффективная фармакотерапия. Неврология. 2014;49(5):40-50 [Barinov AN, Parkhomenko EV, Makhinov KA. The reasons for the negative outcomes of the treatment of back pain and how to overcome them. Effektivnaya farmakoterapiya. Nevrologiya. 2014;49(5):40-50 (In Russ.)].

181. Алексеева ЛИ. Препараты замедленного действия в лечении остеоартроза. Русский медицинский журнал. 2012;(7):389-94 [Alekseeva LI. Slow-acting drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Russkii Meditsinskii Zhurnal. 2012;(7):389-94 (In Russ.)].

182. Imagawa K, de Andres M, Hashimoto K, et al. The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes – implications for

183. osteoarthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;405(3):362-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.01.007

184. Calamia V, Ruiz-Romero C, Rocha B, et al. Pharmacoproteomic study of the effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate on human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(4):R138. doi: 10.1186/ar3077

185. Au R, Au A, Rashmir-Raven A, Frondoza C. Inhibition proinflammatory gene expression in chondrocytes, monocytes, and fibroblasts by combination of avocado soybean unsaponiables, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. FASEB. 2007;21(6):702-7.

186. Towheed T, Maxwell L, Anastassiades T, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002946. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd002946.pub2

187. Reichenbach S, Sterchi R, Scherer M, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(8):580-90. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-8-200704170-00009

188. Fidelix TS, Macedo CR, Maxwell LJ, Fernandes Moca Trevisani V. Diacerein for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 10;2:CD005117. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005117.pub3

189. Christensen R, Bartels E, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16(4):399-408. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2007.10.003

190. Singh G, Alekseeva L, Alexeev V, Triadafilopoulos G. Glucosamin-chondroitin sulfate reduces pain, disability and NSAID consumption in patients with chronic low back pain: a large, community-based, pilot, open prospective observational study. ELAR, 2013, SAT0419

191. Каратеев АЕ, Алексеева ЛИ. Оценка переносимости диацереина в реальной клинической практике. Результаты исследования РОКАДА (Ретроспективная Оценка Клинических Аспектов применения Диафлекса при остеоартрозе). Научно-практическая ревматология. 2015;53(2):169-74 [Karateev AE, Alekseeva LI. Estimation of diacerein tolerability in real clinical practice: Results of the RACADA (Retrospective Assessment of Clinical Aspects of using Diaflex in osteoArthritis). Nauchno-Prakticheskaya Revmatologiya = Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2015;53(2):169-74 (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/1995-4484-2015-169-174

192. Atchison J, Vincent HK. Obesity and low back pain: relationships and treatment. Pain Manag. 2012 Jan;2(1):79-86. doi: 10.2217/pmt.11.64

193. Kotowski S, Davis KG. Influence of weight loss on musculoskeletal pain: Potential short-term relevance. Work. 2010;36(3):295-304. doi: 10.3233/WOR-2010-1031

194. Wai EK, Rodriguez S, Dagenais S, Hall H. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with physical activity, smoking cessation, and weight loss. Spine J. 2008 JanFeb;8(1):195-202. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.024

195. Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Effect of weight reduction in obese patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Apr;66(4):433-9. doi: 10.1136/ard.2006.065904. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

196. Gudbergsen H, Boesen M, Lohmander LS, et al. Weight loss is effective for symptomatic relief in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis independently of joint damage severity assessed by high-field MRI and radiography. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Jun;20(6):495-502. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.02.639. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

197. Jones A, Silva PG, Silva AC, et al. Impact of cane use on pain, function, general health and energy expenditure during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Feb;71(2):172-9. doi: 10.1136/ard.2010.140178. Epub 2011 Nov 29.

198. Duivenvoorden T, Brouwer RW, van Raaij TM, et al. Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 16;3:CD004020. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd004020.pub3

199. Segal NA. Bracing and orthoses: a review of efficacy and mechanical effects for tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. PM&R. 2012 May;4(5 Suppl):S89-96. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.01.018

200. Raja K, Dewan N. Efficacy of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Mar;90(3):247-62. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e318206386b

201. Bennell KL, Buchbinder R, Hinman RS. Physical therapies in the management of osteoarthritis: current state of the evidence. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015 May;27(3):304-11. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000160

202. Bervoets DC, Luijsterburg PA, Alessie JJ, et al. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2015 Jul;61(3):106-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jphys.2015.05.018. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

203. Kadhim-Saleh A, Maganti H, Ghert M, et al. Is low-level laser therapy in relieving neck pain effective? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int. 2013 Oct;33(10):2493-501. doi: 10.1007/s00296-013-2742-z. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

204. Brosseau L, Robinson V, Wells G, et al. WITHDRAWN: Low level laser therapy (Classes III) for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(1):CD002046.

205. Pittler MH, Brown EM, Ernst E. Static magnets for reducing pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. CMAJ. 2007 Sep 25;177(7):736-42. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.061344

206. Ryang We S, Koog YH, Jeong KI, Wi H. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):815-24. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes063. Epub 2012 Apr 13.

207. Li S, Yu B, Zhou D, et al. Electromagnetic fields for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 14;12:CD003523. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd003523.pub2

208. Menke JM. Do manual therapies help low back pain? A comparative effectiveness meta-analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 1;39(7):E463-72. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000230

209. Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD008880. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd008880.pub2

210. Franke H, Franke JD, Fryer G. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Aug 30;15:286. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-286

211. Lam M, Galvin R, Curry P. Effectiveness of acupuncture for nonspecific chronic low back pain: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Nov 15;38(24):2124-38. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000435025.65564.b7

212. Xu M, Yan S, Yin X, et al. Acupuncture for chronic low back pain in long-term follow-up: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials. Am J Chin Med. 2013;41(1):1-19. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X13500018

213. Haake M, Mü ller H, Schade-Brittinger C, et al. German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for chronic low back pain: randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel-group trial with 3 groups. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(17):1892-8. doi: 10.1001/Archinte.167.17.1892

214. Manheimer E, Cheng K, Linde K, et al. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD001977. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001977.pub2

215. Manyanga T, Froese M, Zarychanski R, et al. Pain management with acupuncture in osteoarthritis: a systematic review and metaanalysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Aug 23;14:312. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-312

216. So P, Jiang Y, Qin Y. Touch therapies for pain relief in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD006535. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd006535.pub2

217. Smith K. Against homeopathy – a utilitarian perspective. Bioethics. 2012;26(8):398-409. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8519.2010.01876.x

218. Brien S, Lachance L, Prescott P, et al. Homeopathy has clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are attributable to the consultation process but not the homeopathic remedy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011;50(6):1070-82. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keq234

219. Beer A, Fey S, Zimmer M, et al. Effectiveness and safety of homeopathic drug combination in the treatment of chronic low back pain. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. MMW Fortschr Med. 2012 Jun 28;154 Suppl 2:48-57.

220. Long L, Ernst E. Homeopathic remedies for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Br Homeopath J. 2001 Jan;90(1):37-43. doi: 10.1054/homp.1999.0449

221. Koley M, Saha S, Ghosh S. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled feasibility study evaluating individualized homeopathy in managing pain of knee osteoarthritis. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015 Jul;20(3):186-91. doi: 10.1177/2156587214568668

222. Lembeck M. Quantum physics, medicine and insurance. Versicherungsmedizin. 2007;59(4):179-85.

223. Jain S, Mills P. Biofield therapies: helpful or full of hype? A best evidence synthesis. Int J Behav Med. 2010;17(1):1-16. doi: 10.1007/s12529-009-9062-4

224. Rosch P. Bioelectromagnetic and subtle energy medicine: the interface between mind and matter. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1172:297-311. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04535.x

225. Galle M. Bioresonance, a study of pseudo-scientific language. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004;11(5):306.

226. Hammerschlag R, Marx B, Aickin M. Nontouch biofield therapy: a systematic review of human randomized controlled trials reporting use of only nonphysical contact treatment. J Altern Compliment Med. 2014 Dec;20(12):881-92. doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0017


Для цитирования:


Насонов Е.Л., Яхно Н.Н., Каратеев А.Е., Алексеева Л.И., Баринов А.Н., Барулин А.Е., Давыдов О.С., Данилов А.Б., Журавлева М.В., Заводовский Б.В., Копенкин С.С., Кукушкин М.Л., Парфенов В.А., Страхов М.А., Тюрин В.П., Чичасова Н.В., Чорбинская С.А. Общие принципы лечения скелетно-мышечной боли: междисциплинарный консенсус. Научно-практическая ревматология. 2016;54(3):247-265. https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2016-247-265

For citation:


Nasonov E.L., Yakhno N.N., Karateev A.E., Alekseeva L.I., Barinov A.N., Barulin A.E., Davydov O.S., Danilov A.B., Zhuravleva M.V., Zavodovsky B.V., Kopenkin S.S., Kukishkin M.L., Parfenov V.A., Strakhov M.A., Tyurin V.P., Chichasova N.V., Chorbinskaya S.A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN: INTERDISCIPLINARY CONSENSUS. Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2016;54(3):247-265. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2016-247-265

Просмотров: 1295


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1995-4484 (Print)
ISSN 1995-4492 (Online)