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Научно-практическая ревматология

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Коронавирусная болезнь 2019 (COVID-19): размышления ревматолога

https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2020-123-132

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Аннотация

В декабре 2019 г. в г. Ухань (провинция Хубэй, расположенная в центральном регионе Китая) зарегистрирована вспышка новой инфекции, получившей рабочее название 2019-nCoV, которая быстро распространилась практически по всей территории земного шара и приняла характер пандемии. Всемирная организация здравоохранения (ВОЗ) предложила новое название этого заболевания – коронавирусная болезнь (coronavirus disease, COVID-19), а Международный комитет по таксономии вирусов переименовал 2019-nCov в SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2). Развитие пандемии COVID-19 не только имеет огромное социальное значение, но и привлекает внимание медицинской общественности к принципиально новым клиническим и фундаментальным проблемам иммунопатологии заболеваний человека, которые еще предстоит сформулировать. Уникальный опыт, накопленный в ревматологии в процессе изучения патогенетических механизмов и фармакотерапии иммуновоспалительных ревматических заболеваний (ИВРЗ), может иметь немаловажное значение для расшифровки природы патологических процессов, лежащих в основе тяжелых, потенциально смертельных осложнений COVID-19, и, возможно, будет способствовать совершенствованию их терапии. Что касается перспектив пациентов с ИВРЗ, то, хотя развитие COVID-19 при них, к счастью, еще не описано, можно полагать, что инфицирование SARS-CoV-2 (как и другими вирусами) способно вызывать обострение патологического процесса, а тяжелая патология иммунной системы и сопутствующие коморбидные заболевания – утяжелять течение инфекции. Поскольку, согласно современным представлениям, именно «гипериммунный» ответ, а не только действие самого вируса лежит в основе поражения легких и летальности при COVID-19, особое внимание привлекают эффекты «противоревматической» терапии, включающей глюкокортикоиды, базисные противовоспалительные  препараты (БПВП), генно-инженерные биологические препараты и «таргетные» БПВП, которые могут оказывать разнонаправленное влияние на течение COVID-19. Имеются значительные теоретические предпосылки для «репозиционирования» (drug repurposing) некоторых широко применяемых в ревматологии лекарственных препаратов для лечения COVID-19 и его осложнений. Рассматриваются перспективы изучения иммунопатологии COVID-19 и теоретические обоснования применения аминохинолиновых препаратов, моноклональных антител к ИЛ6, а также ингибиторов Янус-киназ для профилактики оcложнений и лечения COVID-19.

Об авторе

Е. Л. Насонов
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой»; ФГАОУ ВО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России (Сеченовский Университет)
Россия

115522, Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34А

2119991, Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2



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Для цитирования:


Насонов Е.Л. Коронавирусная болезнь 2019 (COVID-19): размышления ревматолога. Научно-практическая ревматология. 2020;58(2):123-132. https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2020-123-132

For citation:


Nasonov E.L. CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19): A RHEUMATOLOGIST’S THOUGHTS. Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2020;58(2):123-132. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2020-123-132

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ISSN 1995-4484 (Print)
ISSN 1995-4492 (Online)